PARTS OF SPEECH

                                          Piriopolis, Uruguay

I. NOUN: names or labels people, places, objects, ideas, emotions or activities.

        A. Collective nouns

            (team, jury, family, government) are usually treated as singular rather than plural if the

            emphasis is on the unit, not the individuals.

        B.   Proper nouns are capitalized.

        C. Gerunds

             are "-ing" words that look like verbs but behave like nouns, e.g. Studying is essential for success.

        D. Nouns function several ways in a sentence:

             1.  Subject - Does the action (verb) John kicked the ball. 

             2.  Direct object - Receives the action (verb). Bill kissed Mary.

             3.  Object of the preposition - The noun or pronoun which follows a preposition. Tom came with us.

             4.  Predicate nominative - The noun or pronoun which follows a liking verb and refers back to the subject. He is John.

             5.  indirect object - Receives the direct object. John kicked Jim the ball. John is the subject, ball is the Direct object and                                Jim is the indirect object

 

II.  ADJECTIVE: describes a noun or pronoun.

        A. Numerical: one book, two students.

        B. Qualitative: big, round, tall, red.

        C. Interrogative: which book? what ideas?

         D. Predicate Adjective: An adjective which follows a linking verb and refers back to the subject. Mary is beautiful.


IIIARTICLE

          A.  Definite: "the"

          B. Indefinite: "a, an"


IV. VERB: expresses action in relationship to the present, past, and future or the fact of being or existence.

           A. Verbs can be regular (work, worked, worked) or irregular (go, went, gone).

           B. Verbs are transitive (take a direct object), intransitive (do not take a direct object) or

               both (e.g. The building burns. /I burned my hand.)

           C. Verbs that combine with other verbs are called auxiliary verbs, have, be, and

               modal's (may, can, should, etc.).

           D. Features of verbs:

                1. Tense  time (past, present, future).

                2. Aspect manner in which actions are experienced or regarded, such as completed

                3. Mood   certainty, obligation, necessity, possibility.

                4. Voice active (subject doing the action) or passive (subject receiving the action) which

                     describes the relationship of subject to the "action”.

 

V. ADVERB describes a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. It cannot describe a noun or

                    pronoun (unlike the adjective).

                A.  Most are formed by adding,-ly to the adjective form. Some have no -ly ending:

                     very, often, quite, well

                B. Adverbs express the following:

                    1. Where, when, or how an action occurred e.g. Tomorrow, I will take my driver’s test.

                    2. To what extent a description is to be understood

                         e.g.. She wore an exceptionally beautiful dress.

VI. PRONOUN     replaces or refers to a noun.

                        Replaces: John gave a present to Mary. John gave it to her

                        Reference: Kim wanted a dinner that was healthy. The cake, which Mary baked, was delicious.

            A. Personal pronouns: me; you; he, him; she, her; they, them; we, us, it.

            B.  Indefinite pronouns (not as specific): someone, anyone, everybody, anybody, somebody, each, all,                                                                                                most, some, few, several, both, any, neither, either, one

            C. Relative pronouns: who, whom, whose, which, that.

            D. Possessive pronouns: mine, hers, his, ours, theirs, yours, its.

            E. Demonstrative pronouns: this/these, that/those.

            F. Pronouns serve the same functions in a sentence as nouns.


VII. PREPOSITION: forms phrases with nouns, pronouns, and verbs. Expresses relationships, 

                                 including place, time, instrument and cause.

             A. Examples: in, at, on, over, above, beyond, between, among, out, of, with, to, under, during,                                                                                              except, for, from, by, near, beside, along, through, around, about.

             B. A preposition plus a noun (and accompanying modifiers) forms a prepositional

                 phrase, e.g.. in the bedroom, by the road, from my friend, between teachers.

             C. Pronouns take the objective case when they follow a preposition: to him, with

                   them, for us. e.g. Jesus died for you and me.

              D. Nouns or pronouns in a prepositional phrase cannot serve as subjects:   

                   On Friday, some of the people in my school enjoy a visit to the local restaurant for

                   mud pie. The subject is some, not people or school.  

VIII. CONJUNCTION: joins words, groups of words, or whole sentences, connecting relatedideas.               

              A. Coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, yet, so, neither/nor, either/or.

              B. Subordinating: because, since, after, if, although, when, unless, as, though, that.

              C. Adverbial: however, therefore, moreover, consequently, thus, in fact.

IX.   INTERJECTION: expressions such as oh, ah, ugh, phew.