Piriopolis, Uruguay

I. NOUN: names or labels people, places, objects, ideas, emotions or activities.

        A. Collective nouns

            (team, jury, family, government) are usually treated as singular rather than plural if the

            emphasis is on the

            unit, not the individuals.

        B.   Proper nouns are capitalized.

        C. Gerunds

             are "-ing" words that look like verbs but behave like nouns, e.g. Studying is essential for


        D. Nouns function several ways in a sentence:

             1.  Subject

             2.  Direct object

             3.  Object of the preposition

             4.  Predicate nominative,

             5.  indirect object


II.  ADJECTIVE: describes a noun or pronoun.

        A. Numerical: one book, two students.

        B. Qualitative: big, round, tall, red.

        C. Interrogative: which book? what ideas?



          A.  Definite: "the"

          B. Indefinite: "a, an"

IV. VERB: expresses action in relationship to the present, past, and future or the fact of being or


           A. Verbs can be regular (work, worked, worked) or irregular (go, went, gone).

           B. Verbs are transitive (take a direct object), intransitive (do not take a direct object) or

               both (e.g. The building burns. /I burned my hand.)

           C. Verbs that combine with other verbs are called auxiliary verbs, have, be, and

               modal's (may, can, should, etc.).

           D. Features of verbs:

                1. Tense  time (past, present, future).

                2. Aspect manner in which actions are experienced or regarded, such as completed or


                3. Mood   certainty, obligation, necessity, possibility.

                4. Voice active (subject doing the action) or passive (subject receiving the action) which

                     describes the relationship ofsubject to the "action”.


V. ADVERB describes a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. It cannot describe a noun or

                    pronoun (unlike the adjective).

                A.  Most are formed by adding,-ly to the adjective form. Some have no -ly ending:

                     very, often, quite, well

                B. Adverbs express the following:

                    1. Where, when, or how an action occurred e.g. Tomorrow, I will take my driver’s


                    2. To what extent a description is to be understood

                         e.g.. She wore an exceptionally beautiful dress.

VI. PRONOUN     replaces or refers to a noun.

                        Replaces: John gave a present to Mary.     John gave it to her

                        Reference: Kim wanted a dinner that was healthy. The cake, which Mary baked,

                                           was delicious.

            A. Personal pronouns: me; you; he, him; she, her; they, them; we, us, it.

            B.  Indefinite pronouns (not as specific): someone, anyone, everybody, anybody,

                                                        somebody, each, all, most, some, few, several, both, any,  

                                                        neither, either, one

            C. Relative pronouns: who, whom, whose, which, that.

            D. Possessive pronouns: mine, hers, his, ours, theirs, yours, its.

            E. Demonstrative pronouns: this/these, that/those.

            F. Pronouns serve the same functions in a sentence as nouns.

VII. PREPOSITION: forms phrases with nouns, pronouns, and verbs. Expresses relationships, 

                                 including place, time, instrument and cause.

             A. Examples: in, at, on, over, above, beyond, between, among, out, of, with, to, under,

                                      beneath, during, except, for, from, by, near, beside, along,  

                                      through, around, about.

             B. A preposition plus a noun (and accompanying modifiers) forms a prepositional

                 phrase, e.g.. in the bredroom, by the road, from my friend, between teachers.

             C. Pronouns take the objective case when they follow a preposition: to him, with

                   them, for us. e.g. Jesus died for you and me.

              D. Nouns or pronouns in a prepositional phrase cannot serve as subjects:   

                   On Friday, some of the people in my school enjoy a visit to the local restaurant for

                   mud pie. The subject is some, not people or school.  

VIII. CONJUNCTION: joins words, groups of words, or whole sentences, connecting related


              A. Coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, yet, so, neither/nor, either/or.

              B. Subordinating: because, since, after, if, although, when, unless, as, though, that.

              C. Adverbial: however, therefore, moreover, consequently, thus, in fact.

IX.   INTERJECTION: expressions such as oh, ah, ugh, phew.