GRAMMAR SEQUENCE

 

SUGGESTED SEQUENCE FOR INTRODUCING THE GRAMMAR OF ENGLISH:

I. THE VERB "TO BE"

    (Topics for  visible, countable objects in the room. Students can (1) identify objects,

    (2) describe the colour and size.)

        A . Statements

              1. Identification: This is a book.

              2. Description: The book is red.

              3. Location: The book is on the table.

 

        B. Yes-No Questions

             1. Invert subject and verb: Is this a book?

             2. "It" as subject pronoun: Yes, it is.

 

       C. Negatives

            1.  "Not"- This is not a book

            2. Contractions: This isn't a book.

       D.   Wh- questions

            1. What's this? (Noun phrase answer)

            2. What colour is this? (Adjective answer)

            3. Where's the NOUN? (Locative answer)

      E. Plurals

           1. This/These and That/Those

           2. Pronunciation of plurals

               a) Voiceless final = voiceless /s/

               b) Voiced final      voiced /z/

               c) Syllabic /ez/ required of nouns ending with /s/, /z/, /s/, /z/, /ts/, /dz/:churches,classes.

 

       F. Other pronoun subjects: he, she, you, etc. (Topics: professions, work, jobs.)

 

      G. Possessive + noun: John's book

  

      H. Telling time & weather  Include variations in expressing time before and after the hour., 

           1.  ten to six vs. ten before six; five past four vs. five after four.   

           2. International time form

 

       I.   Non-count nouns: homework, information, milk, ink.

           1. Non-count nouns often classify a group of count nouns furniture/chair, sofa  

               equipment/computer, microscope,

           2. Topics: food, things found in different rooms in a house.

 

         J. Present continuous: be + -ing

            1.  Introduce verbs that can be either intransitive or transitive: study, read, bum.

             2.  Introduce statement, questions and negative forms

        K.   Planning future: present + be + going to: I am going to go to the beach tomorrow.

 

 II. HABITUAL (OR RECURRING) PRESENT: She drinks tea.

        A. Note third person singular "-s".

        B. Review voicing (I. E).

        C. Teach question and negative forms.

 

III. SIMPLE PAST

         A . Rules for pronunciation: /t/d/ed/

         B. Tense carried by "did" in questions and negative:

             1. He ran home.

             2. He did not run home.

             3. Did he run home?

 

IV. IRREGULAR VERBS

      A. Teach them in sets of similar formations:

           1. All three principal parts the same: quit quit quit

           2. Last two parts the same: have had had

           3.  All three parts different: go went gone


V. BEGIN TEACHING MODAL'S (and never stop!!     can, could, shall, should, may, might, ought.

        

VI. PASSIVE VOICE: be + past participle (third principal part)  The ball was hit by the boy

         A. Introduce, passive in all tenses.

         B.   Introduce statements, questions and negatives.

 

VII.   PERFECT TENSES

         A. Present perfect: I have seen that movie.

         B. Present perfect progressive: I have been studying English.

         C. Past perfect: I had heard of him before.

         D. Future perfect: I will have been here 2 years in May.

 

VIII. CLAUSES

         A.  Independent clauses

             1.  Simple sentences: She went to work.

             2. Compound sentence (two independent clauses joined by a coordinating

                 conjunction):  She went to work, and he went to the market.

          B.  Dependent clauses

                1. Complex sentences: independent+ dependent

                     a.  Relative clauses

                          i)   Who, whose, whom, which, that

                         ii)   Restrictive vs. non-restrictive

                     b.  Adverbial clauses

                          i) Time

                         ii) Place

                        iii) Reason

                        iv) Manner

                2. Compound-complex sentences

                3. Conditional clauses